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Ethics Policy for Journals

Regulations on Research Ethics

Legislated on August 21, 2014

Article 1 Purpose
① These regulations are intended to provide a fair procedural framework for administering the Research Ethics Committee (hereinafter “the Committee”) and ethical guidelines for researchers in carrying out their activities in accordance with Article33 of the Korean Astronomical Society (hereinafter “the Society”), and Articles 2 and 5 of the Research Ethics Committee and its sub-regulations.
② These regulations aim to establish ethical research practices for researchers. They also aim to prevent research misconduct, and to verify integrity upon occurrence of research misconduct in an impartial and systematic manner.
Article 2 Definition of Terms
① Research misconduct (hereinafter referred to as “misconduct”) refers to any instance of fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, failure to give proper credit to co-authors, or redundant publication that may emerge during the research process includingproposal, performance, reporting, and presentation of research defined by each item below. However, if such an instance arises from a minor mistake, or from differences in interpreting or judging data or research results, such an instance is notconsidered as misconduct.
1. “Fabrication” refers to the act of presenting non-existent data or research results.
2. “Falsification” refers to the act of artificially fabricating research materials, equipment, and processes, or distorting research content or results by arbitrarily altering and deleting data.
3. "Plagiarism” refers to the act of using others’ ideas, research content, or results without obtaining proper approval from the authors or without appropriate remarks or citation.
4. “Failing to give proper credit to co-authors” refers to the act of failing to list those who contributed scientifically/academically to the research process or results as co-authors without justifiable reason, or conversely to the act of listing those who have not made any scientific/academic contribution as co-authors out of appreciation or respect.
5. “Redundant publication” refers to the act of publishing a paper that is identical or highly similar in text to one that has already been published without due approval or citation.
6. The act of suggesting to, coercing, or threatening another person to commit the acts described from 1 to 4 above.
7. All other acts that go drastically beyond the typically permissible scope within the academic or scientific and technological community.
② “Informer” refers to a person who informs the respective research institute or the research support institute of the facts or related evidence of suspected misconduct.
③ “Examinee” refers to a person who becomes a subject of an investigation for misconduct upon information by an informer or discovery by the research institute, or a person who becomes a subject of an investigation for being presumed to be involved in misconduct during an investigation process, exclusive of testifiers and witnesses.
④ “Preliminary investigation” refers to procedures required to determine whether or not an official investigation of suspected misconduct is necessary.
⑤ “Main investigation” refers to a process to determine if suspected misconduct indeed took place.
⑥ “Judgment” refers to procedures to finalize investigation results and to inform the informer and examinee of the final investigation results in writing.
Article 3 Scope of Application
These regulations are applied to persons who are either directly or indirectly associated with research activities performed by (a) member(s) of the Society.
Article 4 Relation to Other Regulations
Unless there are special regulations in place with regard to establishment of research ethics and to verification of research integrity, all relevant matters shall be handled based on these regulations.

Chapter 1 Operation of Research Ethics Committee

Article 5 Affiliation
The Committee shall be established as a non-permanent committee within the Society.
Article 6 Composition
① The Committee will consist of four ex officio members including one chairperson and three members on recommendation.
② The four ex officio members are the Vice President of the Society, JKAS editor-in-chief, PKAS editor-in-chief, and the chairperson of the meeting organizing committee, respectively recommended by the President of the Society, as specified inClause ① of Article 19. The three committee members on recommendation are appointed by the President of the Society.
③ The Vice President of the Society shall chair the Committee.
④ The Committee may establish a special sub-committee to investigate a specific case.
Article 7 Chairperson
① The chairperson shall represent the Committee and preside over meetings.
② When the chairperson cannot perform his or her duties due to unavoidable reasons, a member pre-designated by the chairperson shall assume and perform the chairperson’s duties on the chairperson’s behalf.
Article 8 Term of Membership
The term of members shall be limited to the period during which time the Committee is in operation.
Article 9 Assistant Administrator, etc.
① The Committee may have one assistant administrator to facilitate the Committee’s tasks.
② The Committee may have special members dedicated to supporting various Committee tasks.
Article 10 Tasks
The Committee shall deliberate on and determine each of the following matters:
1. Matters related to establishment and operation of systems for research ethics;
2. Matters related to receiving and handling information on misconduct;
3. Matters related to launch of preliminary and main investigations, and approval of investigation results;
4. Matters related to protection of informer and measures to restore honor of examinees;
5. Matters related to handling of research ethics verification results and follow-up measures; and
6. Other matters presented by the chairperson for consideration.
Article 11 Meeting
① The chairperson shall convene and preside over the meeting.
② Items on the agenda shall be deemed resolved when two-thirds of members in attendance vote in agreement.
③ The chairperson may substitute the resolution of items on the agenda that are recognized as minor with a written resolution.
④ Non-members of the Committee can be present at the meeting to voice their opinions to the Committee members, when such participation is deemed necessary by the Committee.
Article 12 Expenses
① The chairperson shall convene and preside over the meeting.
② Items on the agenda shall be deemed resolved when two-thirds of members in attendance vote in agreement.
③ The chairperson may substitute the resolution of items on the agenda that are recognized as minor with a written resolution.
④ Non-members of the Committee can be present at the meeting to voice their opinions to the Committee members, when such participation is deemed necessary by the Committee.
Article 13 Information and Receipt of Misconduct
① An informer may, in principle, inform the Society of alleged misconduct via all possible means including but not limited to oral and written statements, telephone calls, and email. However, should the informer wish to make an anonymous report,he or she shall submit the title of the research project or the title of the thesis, as well as the details and evidence of the alleged misconduct via letter or email.
② Any informer who falsely reports misconduct knowingly or who reports misconduct despite being able to determine it as false shall not be a subject for protection.
Article 14 Period and Method of Preliminary Investigation
① The preliminary investigation shall begin within 15 days from the receipt of allegation and shall be completed within 30 days from the launch for approval by the President of the Society.
② The preliminary investigation shall examine each of the following items:
1. Whether or not the alleged case falls under misconduct as described in Article 2 ①;
2. If the allegation details have validity and clarity, and thus will warrant a main investigation and bring about actual benefits;
3. Whether or not five years have elapsed from the date of the initial report of the alleged misconduct.
Article 15 Report of Preliminary Investigation Results
① Results of the preliminary investigation shall be notified in written form to the President of the Society and the informer within 10 days from the Committee’s resolution. However, in cases where the informer chooses to remain anonymous, the aboveprovision shall not apply.
② A report of preliminary investigation results shall contain each of the following items:
1. Specific details of the report and personal information of the informer;
2. Details of alleged misconduct and related research project subject to investigation;
3. Whether or not a main investigation shall take place and grounds for determination; and
4. Other relevant evidence.
Article 16 Launch and Duration of Main Investigation
① The main investigation shall begin within 30 days after the Society President approves the preliminary investigation results.
② The main investigation, including judgment, shall be completed within 90 days from the date it was launched.
③ If the Committee decides that it cannot complete the investigation within the period stipulated in ②, it shall explain the reason to the Society President and request extension of the investigation period.
④ Prior to the launch of the main investigation, a list of the Committee members should be notified to the informer, and if the informer makes a justifiable objection for avoidance of any Committee member, it shall be accepted.
Article 17 Request for Attendance and Material Submission
① The main investigation shall begin within 30 days after the Society President approves the preliminary investigation results.
② The main investigation, including judgment, shall be completed within 90 days from the date it was launched.
③ If the Committee decides that it cannot complete the investigation within the period stipulated in ②, it shall explain the reason to the Society President and request extension of the investigation period.
④ Prior to the launch of the main investigation, a list of the Committee members should be notified to the informer, and if the informer makes a justifiable objection for avoidance of any Committee member, it shall be accepted.
Article 18 Protection of Rights and Confidentiality of Informer and Examiner
① In any case, the identity of the informer shall not be either directly or indirectly exposed, and the name of the informer shall not be included in the investigation report for the purpose of protecting the informer unless such inclusion is absolutelynecessary.
② In the event that the informer faces any disadvantage such as a disciplinary action, discrimination in terms of work conditions, unjust pressure or harm as a result of his or her report of alleged misconduct, the Committee shall recover thedamage or take measures needed by the informer.
③ The Committee shall take caution not to violate, discredit, or damage the honor or rights of the examinee, and make efforts to restore the honor of an examinee for whom suspicions have been cleared.
④ All matters related to the investigation including but not limited to information (report), examination, deliberation, and resolution shall be kept confidential. Those who are either directly or indirectly involved in the investigation shallnot disclose any information obtained during the course of the investigation and while performing their respective duties related to the investigation. However, if it is necessary to disclose any information for a justifiable reason, it can bedisclosed following the Committee’s resolution.
Article 19 Exclusion/Avoidance and Evasion
① If a Committee member has direct interest in an item on the agenda, the member shall be excluded from dealing with the item concerned.
② The Committee can determine such exclusion either on its authority or upon a request from the member concerned.
③ If there are just reasons to believe that a Committee member is unable to maintain fairness in performing his or her duty, the informer and examinee can make a request for avoidance.
④ A Committee member can evade his or her duty upon approval from the Committee chairperson for reasons stated in ① and ③.
Article 20 Guarantee of Objection and Defense Right
The Committee shall guarantee the informer and the examinee equal rights and opportunities to state opinions, to make an objection, and to defend himself or herself.
Article 21 Submission of Report on Main Investigation Results
① The Committee shall prepare a report on the main investigation results (hereinafter referred to as “the Final Report”) based on opinions stated, objections raised, defenses, etc., and submit it to the Society’s President.
② The Final Report shall contain the following information:
1. Details of initial information of alleged misconduct;
2. Alleged misconduct and related research project subject to investigation;
3. Roles of the examinee in the research project and whether or not the suspected action is true;
4. Relevant evidence and witnesses;
5. Details of objection or defense of the informer and the examinee in response to the investigation results and disposition thereof; and
6. List of Committee members
Article 22 Judgment
The Committee shall finalize the investigation details and results based on the objection(s) raised and defense after obtaining an approval from the Society President, and notify the informer and examinee of its judgment.

Chapter 3 Action after Verification

Article 23 Action on Results
① The Committee may recommend to the Society President to take disciplinary action against persons who have committed any of the following acts.
1. Misconduct;
2. Deliberate interference with an investigation of one’s misconduct or that of another person, or act to harm the informer.
② Matters pertaining to disciplinary action may be determined separately.
Article 24 Preservation and Disclosure of Records
① Records of the preliminary and main investigations shall be kept by the Society for five years from the end of the investigation.
② The Final Report may be disclosed after the judgment is finalized, but the information related to identities, such as a list of all participants including the informer, Committee members, witnesses, testifiers, and those who provided consultation,may be excluded from such disclosure if the information is considered a threat to pose injury to those involved.

Chapter 4 Others

Article 25 Rules for Enforcement
The Committee may establish separate rules for the purpose of enforcing these regulations after obtaining an approval from the board of directors of the Society.
Article 26 Revisions and Abolition
The regulations may be modified or amended by a majority vote of the Board of Directors. Any modification or abolition shall be reported to the general assembly.

Addendum

Article 1 Enforcement Date
These regulations shall enter into force on August 21, 2014.
Article 2 Interim Measures
All actions implemented before these regulations have been established shall be deemed compliant with these regulations.